The academic programmes and projects, implemented by the Institute, are directed towards the resolution of matters: of nutritional safety, preservation of natural resources (third and sixth challenges, stated in the Message of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan “Strategy –Kazakhstan 2050”), preservation and effective management of ecosystems (Declaration of Rio for Environment and Development, Containing the Main Principles of Ecological Law, June 1992, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Concept for the Transition of the Republic to “green” economy, Decree of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan dated 1 June, 2013).
Over the last five years the employees of the Institute have implemented 3 state academic targeted programmes, including 1 international programme, 30 grant projects, 2 innovation grants and a great number of works under economic contracts.
In 2013-2015 the employees of the Institute carried out the academic programme “Botanical Diversity of Wild Relatives of Cultured Plants of Kazakhstan as the Source of Enrichment and the Preservation of the Genetic Pool of Agricultural and Biodiversity for the implementation of Food Programme”. On the basis of the world experience within the framework of the programme implementation, for the first time in Kazakhstan, IBF established a specialized Seed bank, equipped with modern equipment.
Following the collection and the receipt by the bank, and until the laying of seeds for storage they undergo the following the preparation stages: registration, maintenance of documentation, primary drying, primary cleaning, preliminary freezing, secondary cleaning, viability test (description of seeds); final drying, packing. Then the seeds are put for storage. The basic (midterm and long-term) collection, depending on the species, is preserved at the temperature of-18 degrees Centigrade, and the active (short-term) collection is stored at the temperature of 0+4 degrees Centigrade.
The study of wild relatives of cultured plants (WRCP) was performed across the entire territory of Kazakhstan, including in the territory of the largest SPNT. Over the entire period of research there were collected over 3000 seeds of 425 WRCP species. There was studied the diversity of plant communities with the participation and domination of WRCP. There were identified the patterns of distribution of phytocenotic diversity, depending on the high altitude belts in the mountains, the type of water regime in the valley. There have been determined the types of vegetation, which are highest in WRCP. The maps of distribution areas of WRCP species were compiled. In the south, east and the south east of Kazakhstan, there were identified and calculated the raw material reserves for 38 species of WRCP, of which no less than 35 species are provided with the stable raw material base. The number of identified phytopathogens for WRCP comprises 447 species. Within the framework of described programme: in the territory of the Main Botanical Garden there was established the reproduction nursery of nutritional, economically valuable and rare species of WRCP; the collection fund of fruit plants of the Institute has been supplemented with 44 samples of 13 species of wild fruit plants; there have been formed the passports of 617 species of higher plants of Kazakhstan, identified as WRCP, and in respect of part thereof the Certificate for state registration of rights has been obtained.
From 2015 the Institute has continued to implement the state purposeful academic and technical programme (hereinafter – ATP)
“Sustained Management of Genetic Resources of State Botanical Gardens of the South-East and the Central Kazakhstan – specially protected natural territories of republican importance – in conditions of transmission to “green economy” (2015-2017).The programme is directed at the implementation of one of the most important problems of the modern time – preservation of botanical (as part of biological) diversity of Kazakhstan. The resolution of this matter consists in ensuring the preservation and development of unique collection funds of the Institute, which include 3 separate blocks: live collections, herbarium collections and the only Seed bank of the natural flora in Kazakhstan.
The most important results of implementation of the programme are as follows:
- In 2016 in the State botanical garden there was laid down the collection plot of rare, endemic plants of natural flora and there was implemented the first stage of restoration of introduction collection fund of the light loving perennial cultured plants (irises, daylilies, phlox plants and other);
- The research was carried out, which is directed at the study of the invasive (spontaneous) flora of the Main botanical garden, consistent with the global trends of development of botanical science;
- There was developed and published the new assortment of wood plants for planting of greenery in the city of Almaty;
- There is carried out the semi- industrial reproduction of highly valuable species and forms of wood and grass plants for development of green construction and resolution of ecological problems;
- There were developed the plans of development of the Main, Zheskazgan and Ili State botanical gardens for 2018-2020;
- There have been developed the concept of development of MBG “Botanical Garden of XXI century – the garden of new technologies” and the activities, directed at the modernization of the Main Botanical garden;
- There has been carried out the topographic mapping survey of the territory of the Main Botanical garden (including the tree by tree topographical survey of more than 25 000 wood plants) and the analysis of the modern condition of the soils in the territory of the botanical garden;
- There have been performed the design works and the drilling of exploration and operational hydrogeological well of the depth of 250 m with the production rate of no less than 40 cubic metres/hour for the uninterrupted irrigation of scientific collections and plants of the garden.
On instructions of the Government of the RK, the results of scientific development of the Institute were demonstrated at the International botanical exhibition of EXPO 2016 “Florals and Children” (city of Antalya), where the Kazakhstan pavilion placed 3rd out of 57 participant countries with the mention as “THE MOST INFORMATIVE PAVILLION”.
G.T. Sitpayeva, the General Director of the Institute, the academic of KazNaNS, PhD, Biological Sciences, initiated and acted in the capacity of the main developer and supervisor of programmes/
On 3 September, 2016, within the framework of the celebration of “the Day of Kazakhstan” at the International exhibition of “EXPO-2016”, the Institute held an International Academic conference “Preservation and Sustained Use of Genetic Pool of the Plant World of Eurasia in modern times”. The resolution of the conference noted the need for extending the system of interstate academic and practical projects and the development of the new principles of their integration. As a result, from 2017 the Institute will participate in the implementation of the International Innovative programme of Pannon Breeding (Hungary).
In addition to it, within the framework of the implementation of the programme “Sustained Management of Genetic Resources of State Botanical Gardens of the South East and the Central Kazakhstan – specially protected natural territories of the republican importance – in conditions of transition to “green economy”, activities are held, which are aimed at the reconstruction of the Main Botanical Gardens, directed at the bringing of its infrastructure in line with the world standards. Thus, there was purchased and set up the modern greenhouse complex, built according to the south Korean technology (its presentation was held on 19 April, 2017), as well as the modern fencing for scientific collections. In addition to it, new herbarium cabinets were purchased for the AA Herbarium Fund.
On the basis of the study of collections of live plants of MBG within the framework of the indicated programmes there was developed the system and habitat based method of forecasting the introduction of plants. The difference of this method is the forecasting of prospects of results of introduction, based not only on the climatic properties of natural and cultigenic distribution areas, but also on the patterns of phytogeographic populating by the species. Even in the event of more “southern” distribution of the species-descendant from the populating parent species, the potential cold resistance of “southern” species may be as high as that of the parent species. In this way, the theoretical ideas of the ecological genetic flexibility of plants were specified.